Author Archives: michael4mat2

The most important skill for the 21st Century Learner

This excerpt from a LinkedIn post By Brad Smith, the former CEO of Intuit, speaks volumes for the importance of creating a strong culture of learning.

“I’m often asked what skill, experience or attribute I find most important in today’s fast-changing environment. Looking back, it has become clear that one skill stands the test of time, and I believe will be increasingly in-demand as we push ahead in the 21st Century.  That skill is agility.

Here is a great excerpt from his post.

Agility is defined as the ability and willingness to learn from experience, and then apply that learning to perform successfully under new situations.  It is a combination of “act” and “react,” with the velocity of learning being as important as the accuracy of outcomes. As the adage reminds us – it is not “the big that eat the small, it is the fast that eat the slow.”

I have found three particular leadership actions useful for fostering the mindset and capability to optimize for agility:

1.     Create a culture of experimentation

2.     Celebrate learning from the best wheelmakers

3.     Carefully choose how you measure success”

You can read his full post here.

The 4MAT Model is a powerful tool for creating a most positive culture for learning and for designing learning that has greater impact and more positive outcomes.

Moving Beyond Student Learning Diffferences with Diverse Teaching Methods

Tuesday, August 17, from 1-2:00 pm Central Standard Time

As teachers or trainers work to design learning experiences that account for the full range of student learning needs, we ask them to consider 3 key factors: 

  • Student Learning Differences—The profoundly different ways in which students learn, 
  • Teaching Preferences, and how they may impact student learning
  • Stretching strategies for taking a growth-oriented approach to teaching

This free About Learning webinar will journey through these three crucial factors to help teachers create more engaging and inclusive teaching methods 

In Moving Beyond Learner Differences, we will review the 4MAT Model of Learning and provide an overview of the different strategies that teachers employ around the 4MAT Cycle. Some of the more under-utilized approaches will be covered and how these can help transform student learning.  And finally, we will provide an overview of the key teaching strategies that you might see as you progress through the 4 Quadrants of Learning

Moving Beyond Student Learning Differences With Diverse Teaching Methods
    DATE:   Tuesday, August 17th
    TIME:    1:00-2:00 PM CST

Our goal in this session is to help empower educators to design instruction that accounts for the different ways people learn.

Why does 4MAT Start With Why?

Quadrant 1 is about Making Personal Connections.

4MAT® Quadrant 1 is about Making Personal Connections.


You open the learning process in Quadrant One, bounded by the parameters of direct
experience at 12:00 and reflective observation at 3:00.

Oneness: What Students Will Experience

• Personal, meaningful connections based on experience
• Shared storytelling to correlate meaning
• Meaningful dialogue (no telling in Quadrant One, please) with peers about the possible meaning of the material
• How to see the material in context, encompassed in some larger idea
• How to speak in their own subjective voice

The goal in quadrant 1 is to build camaraderie and to give students a sense of having been there, too. Students will experience the diversity of how others see things while gaining insights into their own experiences in discussions with others. This often creates high interest in the material to come. This is where students become aware of the value of learning.

In Quadrant 1, students will:
• Experience the discrepancies that learning will unravel
• Focus on present and past understandings
• Gain a sense of I know something about this, and I want to know more

The climate is one of trust and openness, with permission and encouragement to explore
diverse meanings. The method is discussion of experiences. The students engage in collaborative
learning, each contributing their individuality. The teacher initiates, motivates, and
creates experiences that captures their atttention and encourages perspective sharing.

Dialogue is at the root of the learning process.
—Asa Hilliard

Your teaching task in Quadrant One is to engage students in an experience that will lead
them to value and pursue the learning you initiate. Get them to see how the material will
connect to their lives.

Learning is not rote; it is how we make meaning. It is directly related to how we feel about
what we learn. When we talk about successful learning, we are talking about feeling,
answering the Why?” questions:

• Why do I need to know this
• Why is this material valuable in my life?
• Is there a larger relatable context?

Answer these questions by making connections with your opening activity.

For example, how would you address the Why? when teaching fractions to a fifth grade class?

Would your answer be Because it is in the fifth grade math book, or Because it will be on
the achievement test
, or Because the state standards require this.

All those reasons have some validity, but they have no personal meaning for students.

Why do children need to learn fractions?

Because they can use them. When they understand that we can look at sections of things in order to comprehend the wholeness of things, when they understand that we can manipulate parts to rearrange wholes, when they understand that some things can be understood discretely, then they will see the importance of fractionness.

In other words, the content you teach must carry its own Why? and its own benefit outside of school. Your students must see the validity of the content for themselves, or you will struggle to keep them focused and attentive.

What is a humanizing relationship? One that reflects the qualities of kindness, mercy, consideration, tenderness, love, concern, compassion, cooperation, responsiveness and friendship. Education needs to focus on human interaction.

—David and Roger Johnson


How well are you moving through the 4MAT Learning Cycle? Read these quadrant descriptions to assess your organization’s ability to create high impact learning.


“Why is respect and trust so crucial? 

How many people do we trust? 

On the answer to that hangs the whole design and structure of the organization.”

Charles Handy in The Learning Organization.

People derive their self-esteem from knowing rather than from learning.

Are there collaborations and new teams that we could create?

Why do we fear change if humans are always in transformation? 


Diversity is not only honored but also sought and celebrated.

Authentic conversation is generative: connecting, and inventing.

Communication must be free and open.

We need to admit to each to each other the things we don’t know. 

We need to continually check our underlying knowledge base. 


People work best in communities of practice tinkering with ideas and processes.

We need a system for constant inquiry into the systemic consequences of our actions.

Coaching needs to be a way of life. 


Assessments are multiple and diverse. 

Penetrating questions are asked that are not easily answered. 

We see surprises as opportunities.

We believe all operations can be individual successes that are worth celebrating. 

About Learning at Work: 4MAT and the Learning Organization

In the following months we will be posting mini blogs to discuss the values found in using 4MAT for corporate learning. Subsequent ones will focus on the gifts and skills of each of the four quadrants and the enrichments achieved through 4MAT understandings and use.

The earliest users of the 4MAT Model perceived what a difference cycle knowing could make for learners everywhere. We wondered together if this kind of Cycle knowing could make a real difference in students’ lives, why not in business and corporate learners?

Could learning how to learn bring discipline, balance and perhaps transformation to an organization? In our research a profile of the learning organization emerged, problem solving, decision making, team building a continuing renewal by going through the cycle, from meaning to structure, to operations, and new adapted understandings.

One of our first corporate clients reported:

“From our organizational structure,
to the formation of a project team,
to the planning for a meeting,
to the everyday dialogue,
we experience the value of differences.
4MAT has helped us to accomplish this.
We have woven an organizational fabric that has a rich texture, with diversity proving
to be amazingly strong and resilient.”
—Randall Murphy, founder of Acclivus

In the 4MAT Framework of balance and wholes,
There is a real community in which a common vision is shared,
There is a defined and agreed-upon structure that is congruent with the vision,
Methods that honor the vision are in place to accomplish and monitor goals,
Refocusing procedures are in place for continued stretching the possible boundaries.

The Neurobiology of Learning. 10 Key Recommendations for Enhancing Learning.

The Neurobiology of Learning 

by Michael J. Friedlander  March 31, 2011

Screen Shot 2020-06-26 at 4.55.54 PMMichael J. Friedlander is the executive director of the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute and professor of biological sciences and of biomedical engineering and science at  Virginia  Tech.

He is the lead author on this article entitled The Neurobiology of Learning. This article provides 10 recommendations for learning design that were made by a prestigious panel of brain experts.

They believe that by incorporating these recommendations into instructional design more effective teaching will result.

We created an article summarizing the 10 recommendations from this panel, along with our comments in yellow on how these concepts relate to the 4MAT Design Model, a tool for creating more dynamic and engaging instruction.

View our summary of their 10 recommendations.

Or to learn more about 4MAT, visit the  About Learning Web site.

Guidelines for Managing with the 4MAT Learning Cycle

4MAT is a proven system for building more successful learning environments, and as a meta-model it applies in a variety of contexts.

And while it is often used in teaching or training, it is equally useful as a tool for improving communications, management methods or leadership practices within an organization or group.


The goal is to help managers use more diverse and inclusive methods to learning to encourage greater participation and involvement among those who are vested in learning.

To see how well you are managing around the 4MAT Learning Cycle, we invite you to download this free Handout that is excerpted from our 4-Day 4MAT Leadership Program. This activity was designed to help managers reflect on how well they were integrating 4MAT into their own practice.

Managers Checklist for Moving through the 4MAT Learning Cycle.

Let us know how well you are integrating the principles of inclusive learning (4MAT) into your current management methods.

4MATION® Software Update

4MATION Online Development Software
Order now at the special introductory rate…

To explore our software for creating and sharing 4MAT wheels, accessing hundreds of high quality units, and learning the 8 steps to creating more dynamic and engaging instruction.

We just upgraded the software with a host of new features including a new Instructional Resources Area for building your own database of  resources, new tutorials and guidance in the 4MAT Model and its effective implementation and a database of pop-in strategies for creating more dynamic and engaging instruction, to name a few.

Order now at the special rate of just $79 by using the About Learning online shopping cart. 4MATION subscriptions are on sale now through May 15th so act now to take advantage of this special sale price.

About Learning April and May Webinars

About Learning Webinars provide great insights into how to improve the process of teaching and learning. Please join us for the following free sessions scheduled for April and May, 2020. All sessions are from 3-4:00 PM CST.

Monday, April 20th




Meta Analysis of Learning Styles Models from Turkey, including the 4MAT Model of Teaching.

A new meta-analysis of learning styles models from Turkey has some interesting findings about these types of educational interventions. Hare are key highlights from this research. To view the entire research study, you can use this link to view the full PDF File. This research article was published Online in October of 2016 in the journal Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice

Overview of the meta-analysis

The total sample size included in this review was 2159. The treatment groups consisted of 1075 and the control groups consisted of 1084 students. Here was analysis of how the research studies were selected or inclusion in this meta-analysis.

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The table below shows the frequency distribution of the studies by course type, study type, learning style model, experimental design and investigated variable.

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According to Table 1, in terms of course type, 30% (f = 9) of the studies involved natural science (science, physics, chemistry, biology), 23.3% (f = 7) involved math, 20% (f = 6) involved social science (social studies, history, geography), 16.7% (f = 8) involved English, 6.7% (f = 2) involved informatics and 3.3% (f = 1) involved music. In terms of study type; 53.3% (f = 16) of the studies are thesis and 46.7% (f = 14) are articles.

In regards to the types of learning style models involved, here is the breakdown:

  • 43.3% (f = 13) of the studies employed the Perceptual Learning Styles Model,
  • 33.3% (f = 10) employed the 4MAT Model,
  • 6.7% (f = 2) employed the Kolb Learning Styles Model,
  • 10.1% (f = 3) employed the Dunn & Dunn Learning Styles Model,
  • 3.3% (f = 1) employed the Felder & Solomon and Brain 2070 EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES: THEORY & PRACTICE Dominance Model.

In terms of experimental design, 86.7% (f = 26) of the studies used quasi-experimental design and 13.3% (f = 4) used true-experimental design. In terms of investigated variable, 58.0% (f = 29) of the studies investigated the effect of learning style on achievement, 22.0% (f = 11) investigated the effect of learning style on attitude and 20.0% (f = 10) investigated the effect of learning style on retention.

Effect Sizes of Learning Styles Models 

Under the random effect model, the common effect sizes were as follows.

Studies employing the…

  • 4MAT System, 1.168 (0.860, 1.477);
  • Perceptual Learning Style Model, 0.870 (0.653, 1.023);
  • Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model, 1.331 (1.047, 1.087);
  • Kolb Learning Styles Model, 1.067 (−0.876, 3.009).

These results reveal that there is not a meaningful difference between the effects sizes of the classification created according to course type: namely the effect sizes of the courses tailored to learning styles model on the academic achievement are independent of course type.

When the effect sizes of 11 studies included in this review were combined according to the random effect model, the common effect size was calculated as (d) 1.113 with 0.227 standard error and 95% confidence intervals of 1.557 and 0.669. This common effect size is large according to the Cohen’s (1988) classification. This d value is associated with a U3 value of 84.1%, which means that the average student receiving instruction tailored to their learning styles scored higher on attitude tests than 84.1% of students receiving no instruction.

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When the effect sizes of 10 studies included in this review were combined according to the random effect model, the common effect size was computed as (d) 1.763 with 0.241 standard error and 95% confidence intervals of 1.763 and 0.817. This common effect size is large according to the Cohen’s (1988) classification.

This d value is associated with a U3 value of 90.3%. This means that the average student receiving instruction tailored to their learning styles scored higher on retention tests than 90.3% of students receiving no instruction.

When the effect sizes of 10 studies included in this review were combined according to the random effect model, the common effect size was computed as (d) 1.763 with 0.241 standard error and 95% confidence intervals of 1.763 and 0.817. This common effect size is large according to the Cohen’s (1988) classification.

This d value is associated with a U3 value of 90.3%. This means that the average student receiving instruction tailored to their learning styles scored higher on retention tests than 90.3% of students receiving no instruction.     

In these meta-analytic review, it was found that when student received an instruction tailored to their learning style, their attitude (d = 1.113) toward courses improved and their learning was more permanent (d=1.290).

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Comparison of Effect Sizes to Hattie’s Barometer of Influence.

When comparing this to Hattie’s Barometer of Influence,  it is clear that this meta-analysis shows a very positive impact for learning style interventions and the 4MAT Model of Instruction in particular. The Chart above displays the impact of 4MAT on the Hattie Scale and places it near the top of the Desired Effects for an Educational Intervention. 

According to these results, it can be said that the learning environment designed based on learning styles has a large effect on students’ attitude toward course and learning retention.

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